The Geology of Stoke Newington

Boyn Hill or High Gravel Terrace. This is a gravel terrace about 100 feet (30 metres) above sea level. It was laid down by the Rivers Thames and Lea. Over the ages, the rivers wandered about, leaving their old beds as terraces. Some of these were later cut away by geological action but pieces have been left. They made excellent building sites with good water supplies.

Brickearth. During the Ice Ages, North Europe was covered in permafrost. In the summers, a few centimetres melted and were blown away by strong cyclonic winds to cover the o1d Taplow terraces. In time it built up to quite a thick layer and valuable layer of soil. It was baked to make the handsome red bricks for Queen Anne houses and also grew good apple trees. It is largely worked off today.
The Taplow or Middle Terrace. This is a high gravel terrace about l6 metres (50 feet) above sea level and again very popular for house building and for roads as the drainage is so good. It was laid down in the latter part of the Second Interglacial Period, between the Second and Third Ice Ages.
London Clay. This was laid down when the sea covered the London Valley. European rivers, carrying heavy loads of silt, deposited the larger particles near the shore but the smallest were carried far out to sea and laid down as Clay. This makes brown/red bricks, forms water tight reservoirs, lines canal beds, and gives wet cellars.